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Job-Detailed Outline
A. The Prologue-The Affliction of Job
Job 1:1-5 Description of Job
Job's prosperity is described. Job is blameless and upright, and prosperous.
Job 1:6-2:10 Affliction of Job
Job 1:6-12 Dialogue between God and Satan. Satan accuses Job. God gives Satan permission to "touch all he has".
Job 1:13-22 Disaster befalls Job. Four plagues kill his children, servants, cattle, and crops. Job looks to God for strength.
Job 2:1-6 Second dialogue between God and Satan. Job is still upright and blameless. God gives Satan permission to "touch his bone and his flesh". Satan must spare Job's life. (Many commentators struggle with the origin and meaning of the Satan as well as the conversations between God and Satan. Yet the point of the Prologue is essential to the story. It is imperative that God himself declares Job innocent at the beginning of the story; otherwise, we'd be siding with his friends along the way).
Job 2:7-10 Affliction of Job's body. He sits among the ashes. His wife tells him to "curse God and die".
Job 2:11-13 Arrival of Job's Three Friends
Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar. They sit with him on the ground, in silence, for seven days.
B. Debates Between Job and His Three Friends
Job 3-14 First Cycle of Debate
Job 3:1-13 Job curses the day he was born. He questions why he's alive to experience such pain.
Job 3:14-26 Job's lament Describes his agitation and lack of rest.
Job 4-5 Eliphaz's First Speech
Job 4:1-11 Eliphaz consoles Job with doctrine of retribution.
Job 4:12-21 Eliphaz believes no one is just before God.
Job 5:1-7 Who is there for Job to turn to.
Job 5:8-16 Job should appeal to God who only does right.
Job 5:17-27 One who needs correcting is reproved (Eliphaz tries to motivate Job to serve God for the benefits he will receive).
Job 6-7 Job's First Response
Job 6 Job repeats his lament, argues with God, he expects an audience. Job asks to die. Accuses friends of betraying him, says they are afraid of God and not wiling to be loyal to him. Requests their sympathy.
Job 7 Job's lament. Describes his pain, wants his life to return to normal. Complains God is not treating him fairly. Prays for a reprieve (Job laments the betrayal of his friends, wants relief from his illness, and defends his right to lament).
Job 8 Bildad's First Speech
Job 8:1-7 He reprimands Job by claiming that all God's ways are just.
Job 8:8-19 Uses tradition of elders and examples from nature to make case.
Job 8:20-22 God never reverses the laws of retribution (Bildad counsels Job on the certainty of the law of retribution, no exceptions).
Job 9-10 Job's Second Response, Virtually Ignores Bildad
Job 9 Job wants to litigate with God. Job begins to blame God. He pleads for mercy, but expects God to crush him. Wrestles with God, eventually demands a mediator.
Job 10 Realizes he has to be his own mediator (Job believes God has failed to inform him of the charges against him. Desires an advocate between God and him. Finding none, Job once again pleads for mercy. Knows he must be acquitted in order to renew fellowship with God).
Job 11 Zophar's First Speech
Accuses Job…people are either submissive or arrogant before God. God's wisdom is inexhaustible. He calls for Job to repent in order to receive blessings. He tries to impress upon Job the immeasurable depth of God's wisdom. If Job is suffering (which of course he is), then he must have committed some hidden sin. Praying that God will overlook it is pointless. Repentance is the only solution.
Job 12-14 Job's Third Response
Job 12:1-13:17 Objects to his friends' arguments. They are on dangerous ground of offending God with their arguments. Realizes he will have to plead his own case. It is worth doing because he is worth it. His wisdom is equal to theirs. He knows God has control over all creatures.
Job 13:18-14:22 Job summons God. If he follows friends' advice, he will compromise his own integrity Job pleads with God to hear his case. Ends with another lament, identifies his suffering with all of humanity. Job muses over the possibility of life after death, and then rejects it even though he believes God has control over death. Tradition of the fathers has merit, but needs critical thinking. Each person has to decide these things for himself. Friends have tried to instruct him in God's ways and begged him to seek God. Job feels friends simply don't get it. Rejects arguments of friends, tries to litigate directly with God.
Job 15-21 Second Cycle of Debate
Job 15 Eliphaz's Second Speech. Rejects Job's claim to Wisdom, ridicules his self-defense. Describes the plight of a wicked person (i.e. in this case, Job). Tries to convince Job that his suffering is that of a wicked person. Doctrine of retribution is firm. Increases the rhetoric and sarcasm. No sympathy.
Job 16-17 Job's Fourth Response. Argues with his friends (miserable comforters). Renews his lament against God. Job calls for heaven to witness his unsettled claim against God. Ends with another personal lament, feels death is inevitable. Job's pains are wearing him down, feels need for vindication is more urgent.
Job 18 Bildad's Second Speech. Also increases rhetoric, delivers passionate speech about terror that awaits those who do evil (i.e. in this case, Job). There is no hope for those who argue against God. At this point feels Job has reached the point of no return. Tries to scare him into repenting and end his arguing against God.
Job 19 Job's Fifth Response. Complains mightily against his friends, feels estranged from them. Begs them to offer real assistance, warns them if they don't. Job feels totally isolated. Knows that a "kinsman-redeemer" will stand up for him. God will do this, he just doesn't know when, but begins to plot a course of action.
Job 20 Zophar's Second Speech. Unnerved by Job's accusations against friends and God. Doesn't know how to respond, repeats assertion that evil fate awaits evildoers. Zophar presents a wisdom speech, sees Job's sufferings as just.
Job 21 Job's Sixth Speech. Speaks to his friends, demands a sympathetic hearing. Sees that some wicked prosper; some innocents suffer. Therefore doctrine of retribution fails. Anticipates and rebuts friends' rejection. Job soundly rejects counsel of the friends.
Job 22-31 The Third Cycle of Debate
Job 22 Eliphaz's Third Speech. Increases rhetoric against Job. Rejects Job's argument…states God does punish wicked. Issues stirring call for Job to repent. Job's refusal to admit sins causes Eliphaz to lecture him on how he can restore his relationship with God. Whatever care he once had for Job is now gone.
Job 23-24 Job's Seventh Response. Ignores Eliphaz's statements, desires to present his case before God. Is very confident that God will allow him to do this. Meditates on God's sovereignty. Complains about widespread suffering, criminal injustice, and the wicked. Job speaks with increasing confidence. Resolves to meet God, argue his case. Is more sensitive to human injustices because of his own situation.
Job 25 Bildad's Third Speech. Praises God, repeats that the wicked are certainly punished. Bildad believes Job is unworthy to speak before God.
Job 26-27 Job's Eighth Response. Turns away from friends and meditates on God's awesome power. Maintains his innocence, tries to instruct his friends. Job praises God and avows his own integrity. Celebrates God's power.
Job 28 Treatise on Wisdom. This chapter is a transition between dialogue of friends and scenes to come. Speaker is unknown; most attribute this poem to Job. Treatise on Wisdom is elusive, wisdom can only be known by God. Signifies end of dialogue; comforters have failed in efforts to comfort. Job maintains his innocence, but lacks insight on God's purpose. Job discovers true wisdom is spiritual wisdom.
Job 29-31 Job's Summation
Job 29 Job remembers his innocence, his abundant life. Job had intimacy with God; community recognized Job's favor with God. He was among the most respected of all elders.
Job 30 Job's Lament. He laments his shame and suffering. Now people in society taunt him. Repeats their taunts for all to hear. Accuses God, faith in God's goodness is badly shaken.
Job 31 Maintains his Innocence.Takes an oath. Lists 14 sins that he has not committed. Seals his oath with his own signature.
C. The Speeches of Elihu
Job 32-37 Comforters are Rendered Speechless by Job's Latest Tirade
Comforters are rendered speechless by Job's latest tirade. Young Elihu speaks. Asks permission to speak Claims divine inspiration and offers insight into God's ways of instruction. Stresses God's sovereignty. He makes four main speeches…do not assume all suffering is for punishment. Righteous can respond to suffering in various ways.
Job 32:1-5 Introduction of Elihu. Youthful and angry with Job for making himself more righteous than God
Angry with three friends for putting God in the wrong.
Job 32:6-33 Elihu's First Speech. Apologizes for speaking among the elders. Sometimes there is purpose in affliction. Job claims God has afflicted him. This was incorrect; God is greater than man. To want to argue with God is presumptuous in itself; God is always trying to communicate with man. God has many ways at his disposal…dreams, angel mediators. Insinuates Job has not been listening. Asks Job to respond, but now Job is silent.
Job 34 Elihu's Second Speech. Asks Job to listen. Repeats Job's complaint against God. Responds that God rules justly. God's slowness to act does not mean he is not sovereign. Calls on Job for a decision and warns of judgment against him.
Job 35 Elihu's Third Speech. Takes up matter of Job's innocence. Doesn't look for hidden sins, but claims Job is again presumptuous.
Job 36-37 Elihu's Fourth Speech. There is a disciplinary use of suffering. God protects the righteous. Warns Job: because God's ways are just, Job will lose in the divine court. God is totally great…uses examples from Nature of God's greatness. Though Elihu is young, his wisdom surpasses that of the three friends. Elihu admits to the possibility of innocent suffering. Job should rethink his situation and determine if God is trying to "correct" him. Asks him to meditate on God's power.
D. The Restoration of Job
Suddenly out of a tempest, God addresses Job. God totally ignores Job's complaints; addresses Job as a teacher might.

Job 38-40:5 God’s First Challenge to Job
Job 38:1-40:2 God's First Speech. God speaks to Job about the creation of the universe. He speaks about the structure and maintenance of the world. God invites Job to respond.
Job 40:3-5 Job's Response. He says he is small, cannot add anything to what has already been said. He anticipated being overcome by God's power. But God is not overpowering him; it is simply His presence that causes Job to be silent. In the presence of God, the need to debate has diminished.
Job 40:6-41 God's Second Challenge to Job. God questions Job's power. Does Job intend to supplant God? God introduces two beasts and the implications of his position. If Job wants to play God, he must rule these beasts (Behemoth and Leviathan). God emphasizes he has the power to execute his justice. Job can trust God to do justice in his case; God is merciful. God is sovereign and able to fulfill his purpose in Job's case.
Job 42 Job’s Submission and Restoration
42:1-6 Job's Second Response.
With an inspired awareness of God's power, Job submits himself to God. God has convinced him of God's wise and merciful governance of the world. Job humbles himself before God; having a relationship with God is the most important thing. The legal issue has dissipated.
Job 42:7-17 - The Epilogue - The Restoration of Job
God condemns the three friends. Job prays for them; God accepts Job's prayer. With that, Job's fortune is restored - double all that he had. Kinsmen come to rejoice with him. List of Job's blessings…animals, children. Job's epitaph - lived to be 140 "And Job died, old and full of years”.

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